Interesting things about space objects.
Each of us knows what to do when a star falls — of course, make a wish. Everyone has also heard about the meteorite from Chelyabinsk and the famous Tunguska meteorite.
Where do asteroids come from, what do they look like, and what happens if a meteorite hits the Earth?
Bolid is a very bright meteor that we see in the sky. Usually it is the size of a fist and does not reach the ground, burning up in the atmosphere. Rocks less than two meters in size burn up in the atmosphere before reaching the planet. Hundreds of tons reach the Earth’s atmosphere every day, but few fall to the surface — about a hundred kilograms a day. Meteorites are of different origins. Stone; Iron — a melted piece of metal, like a piece of plasticine, which was poked with something. Remgragripta — depressions in the meteorite, from which the air blew out the fusible components. They consist of 95% iron and 5% nickel; Stone-iron-rare, on Earth, in principle, there are no such-iron and stone are difficult to mix in the conditions of gravity. They look like iron honeycombs, in which pieces of stone are fused. 1/3 of the Earth is a core consisting of a mixture of iron and nickel. Stone-iron meteorites are formed in space from the decay of planets with a similar core. The meteorite that fell in Chelyabinsk was made of stone and had a size of about 20 meters. It began to collapse even high in the atmosphere, and small fragments fell to the Ground. The largest fragment had a mass of 600 kg. Meteorites have a supersonic velocity that forms a shock wave that arrives within 5 minutes of the meteorite’s passage. The Tunguska meteorite, which flew over the taiga in 1908, had a diameter of 60 meters-this is about the size of a five-story building. It didn’t make it to earth because it was a piece of ice and just melted in the atmosphere. The shock wave from the meteorite was folded and broken more than 2,000 square meters.km of forest. If it flew over the city, the skyscrapers and the usual tall buildings would add up. If a meteor is flying towards the center of the Earth, it will hit the ground, and there will be an earthquake, but all the energy will go into the ground. If the meteor flies on a tangent, the energy remains in the air and is scattered in the form of a shock wave. A meteorite with a diameter of 1 kilometer is a disaster for an entire country about the size of France. A meteorite with a diameter of 10 kilometers is a disaster for the mainland. If such a meteorite fell on the mainland, the whole of Europe would be turned inside out, there would be a terrifying shock wave that would sweep around the globe 2-3 times, causing a strong earthquake. At the same time, the atmosphere would suffer — the release of dust and burning from fires would thin the atmosphere. If such a meteorite fell into the ocean — it would cause a huge tsunami that would go hundreds of kilometers deep into the continents. Meteorites do not have a radioactive background, and iron does not accept cosmic radiation. In the Asteroid Belt there are asteroids from 1000 km in diameter and smaller. The astronauts counted asteroids larger than a kilometer — there are about 800 thousand of them. But none of them will reach us in the next century. A comet is a huge block of ice. They come from far away — in the solar system, they just melt. They are discovered no earlier than a month before arrival. In the fall of 2017, an asteroid arrived from another solar system, passed by the Sun and the Earth. It was hundreds of meters in size and shaped like a pencil. The scientists decided that it was a spaceship, but it did not respond to radio signals. The asteroid had a speed of 100 km / s and flew along the Sun. It was discovered after it had passed the Ground. Now scientists are working on the invention of a probe that would have a speed greater than an asteroid, and could go after it in pursuit. This asteroid was named Omuamua – “the first messenger from afar” in the language of the Goa Indians. The Master system: Russian astronomers have invented telescopes that are scattered throughout Russia, South Africa, and America. Where it is night, there is one of the telescopes working. Robot telescopes look for something interesting in the sky, take photos and send them to a laboratory in Moscow. To even slightly move an asteroid that is flying towards the Earth, you need to detect it in a few years and send an apparatus to it that will move the asteroid for a long time. In 2029, an asteroid measuring 300 meters will fly past the Earth in a satellite orbit at an altitude of 36 thousand kilometers from Earth. The gravity of the Earth will slightly change the direction of its movement, but in which direction – astronomers do not know. In 2036, the asteroid will return, calculations show that it will also pass by the Earth. Theoretically, there could be live bacteria inside meteorites. However, for humans, they are not dangerous and are not a problem: for them, our environment and the person himself can not be food. On Saturn’s moon, Titan, you can almost breathe: it has a nitrogen atmosphere, inside which you can stay without a spacesuit. However, you will need to warm up: the temperature on the satellite is minus 108 degrees Celsius.
The Goba iron meteorite, weighing 60 tons, lies in South Africa. It fell presumably 80 thousand years ago and is located on the surface.