Supermassive black holes.
A black hole is a region in space-time whose gravitational pull is so great that even light cannot leave it. Black holes that have grown to gigantic sizes form the cores of most galaxies.
A supermassive black hole is a black hole with a mass of about 105-1010 solar masses. As of 2014, supermassive black holes are found at the center of many galaxies, including our Milky Way.
The heaviest supermassive black hole outside our galaxy is located in Galaxy B of the giant elliptical galaxy NGC 4889 in the constellation of Veronica’s Hair. Its mass is about 21 billion solar masses!
In this image, the galaxy NGC 4889 is located in the center. Somewhere out there lurked the giant.
There is no generally accepted theory of the formation of black holes of such a mass yet. There are several hypotheses, the most obvious of which is the hypothesis describing the gradual build-up of the mass of a black hole by the gravitational attraction of matter (usually gas) from the cosmic surrounding space. The difficulty of forming a supermassive black hole is that a sufficient amount of matter must be concentrated in a relatively small volume.
A supermassive black hole and its accretion disk in the artist’s view.
Spiral galaxy NGC 4845 (type Sa) in the constellation Virgo, located at a distance of 65 million light-years from Earth. At the center of the galaxy is a supermassive black hole with a mass of about 230,000 solar masses.
The space observatory Chandra (Chandra X-ray Observatory, NASA) recently provided evidence that many supermassive black holes rotate at great speed. The measured rotation speed of one of the black holes is 3.5 trillion. miles per hour is about half the speed of light, and its incredible gravity pulls the surrounding space for many millions of kilometers.
Spiral galaxy NGC 1097 in the constellation Furnace. At the center of the galaxy is a supermassive black hole that is 100 million times heavier than our Sun. It sucks in any matter in the area.
The most powerful quasar in the galaxy Markarian 231 can receive energy from two black holes located in the center, which are circling each other. According to scientists, the mass of the central black hole exceeds the solar mass by 150 million times, the mass of the satellite black hole is 4 million times greater than the solar one. This dynamic duo absorbs galactic matter and generates a huge amount of energy, causing a glow in the center of the galaxy that can outshine the glow of billions of stars.
Quasars are the brightest sources in the universe, whose light is brighter than the glow of their galaxies. There is a hypothesis that quasars are the cores of distant galaxies at the stage of unusually high activity. The quasar at the center of the galaxy Markarian 231 is the closest such object to us and manifests itself as a compact radio source. Scientists estimate its age at just a million years.
The giant elliptical galaxy M60 and the spiral galaxy NGC 4647 look like a very strange pair. They are both located in the constellation Virgo. Bright M60, about 54 million light-years away, has a simple egg shape that is created by randomly swarming old stars. NGC 4647 (top right), by contrast, is made up of young blue stars, gas, and dust that are arranged in the swirling arms of a flat, rotating disk.
At the center of M60 is a supermassive black hole with 4.5 billion solar masses.
Galaxy 4C+29.30, located at a distance of 850 million light-years from Earth. At the center is a supermassive black hole. Its mass is 100 million times that of our Sun.
Astronomers have long sought confirmation that Sagittarius A, our supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way, is the source of the plasma jet. Finally, they found it-this is evidenced by new results obtained by the Chandra X-ray observatory (Chandra) and the VLA radio telescope. This jet or jet is formed by the absorption of matter by a supermassive black hole, and its existence has long been predicted by theorists.
Using the highest-quality X-ray images, astronomers have found the first obvious fact that massive black holes were similar in the early Universe. Studies and observations of distant galaxies have shown that they all have similar supermassive black holes. At least 30 million supermassive similar black holes were found in the Early Universe. This is 10,000 times more than previously estimated.
The artist’s drawing shows a growing supermassive black hole.
Spiral galaxy NGC 4945 with a jumper (SBc) in the constellation Centaurus. It is quite similar to our Galaxy, but X-ray observations show the presence of a core, probably containing an active supermassive black hole.
Cluster PKS 0745-19. The black hole at the center is one of the 18 largest known black holes in the universe.
A powerful stream of particles from a supermassive black hole that hit a nearby galaxy. Astronomers have observed galaxy collisions before, but this is the first time such a” cosmic shot ” has been recorded. The “incident” occurred in a star system located at a distance of 1.4 billion kilometers. light-years from Earth, where the two galaxies are currently merging. The” black hole “of the larger of the two galaxies, which astronomers compare to the “Death Star” from the movie epic “Star Wars”, threw out a powerful stream of charged particles, which landed directly in the galaxy next door.